Although the United States and Turkey are not parties to the agreement, as they have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue to be required, as an “Annex 1” country under the UNFCCC, to end national communications and establish an annual inventory of greenhouse gases.  According to the organizing committee at the beginning of the discussions, the expected end result was an agreement to limit global warming to “well below 2 degrees Celsius” above pre-industrial levels. The agreement requires that there be no anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in the second half of the 21st century. In the adopted version of the Paris Agreement, the parties will also make “efforts” to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.  According to some scientists, the 1.5-C target will require zero emissions between 2030 and 2050.  A series of preparatory meetings for COP21 were held, including the Bonn climate change conference from 19 to 23 October 2015, during which a draft agreement was drawn up.  The venue for the UNFCCC talks is being filmed by regions of all United Nations countries. The 2015 conference was held at Le Bourget from November 30 to December 12, 2015. The conference negotiated the Paris Agreement, a comprehensive agreement on reducing climate change, the text of which was a consensus among the representatives of the 196 parties.  The agreement will enter into force if at least 55 countries, which together account for at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions, are joined.   On April 22, 2016 (Earth Day), 174 countries signed the agreement in New York  and began to adopt it in their own legal systems (by ratification, acceptance, approval or membership). It is rare that there is a consensus among almost all nations on a single subject. But with the Paris agreement, world leaders agreed that climate change was driven by human behaviour, that it was a threat to the environment and to humanity as a whole, and that global action was needed to stop it.
In addition, a clear framework has been put in place for all countries to make commitments to reduce emissions and strengthen these measures over time. Here are some main reasons why the agreement is so important: under the Paris Agreement, each country must define, plan and report regularly on the contribution it makes to the control of global warming.  There is no mechanism for a country to set an emission target for a specified date, but any target should go beyond the previous targets. The United States formally withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would return to the agreement after his inauguration.  Indeed, research shows that the cost of climate activity far outweighs the cost of reducing carbon pollution. A recent study suggests that if the United States does not meet its climate targets in Paris, it could cost the economy up to $6 trillion in the coming decades. A lack of compliance with the NPNs currently foreseen in the agreement could reduce global GDP by more than 25% by the end of the century. Meanwhile, another study estimates that achieving – or even exceeding – the Paris targets by investing in infrastructure in clean energy and energy efficiency could have great benefits globally – about $19 trillion.